Forest Ecosystem

Forest ecosystem is the most dominant ecosystem in the country with 70.46 percent of the total area under forest cover. The temperate zone lying between 2000m to 4000m contains the temperate conifer and broad leaf forest. The subtropical zone, which lies between 150m to 2000m contains the sub-tropical and tropical vegetation. Mixed conifer and broadleaf forests are the two dominant forest types, constituting 62.43 and 22.69 percent of the total forest cover respectively.

Alpine Ecosystem

The alpine ecosystem in Bhutan is found in areas above 4000m. It is rich in many species of grasses and herbs with over 200 medicinal plants used for traditional medicine found in this region. It is also the habitat of the famous chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), and a haven for wild fauna, such as the snow leopard, blue sheep and takin.

Aquatic Ecosystem

Bhutan has different forms of aquatic habitats scattered throughout the country, ranging from rivers, lakes, marshlands to hot springs.

Agricultural Ecosystem

The country is has  six major agro-ecological zones corresponding with altitude range and climatic conditions. The agricultural ecosystem in the country extends from as low as 600m to about 4500m above sea level.


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